Behavioural problems and learning disabilities
Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
What is ADHD?
ADHD stands for Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Roughly translated, it means a lack of attention combined with hyperactivity. ADHD is common in children. Children and adults who suffer from ADHD are more likely than others to have problems with:
- Attention and concentration
- Action regulation
A disorder that is related to ADHD is ADD. The difference between these two disorders is that in ADD the attention disorder is prominent and hyperactivity does not apply.
What causes ADHD?
While the exact cause of ADHD has not yet been identified, it is clear that three factors play a major role:
- Functioning of the brain
Symptoms related to ADHD
The symptoms related to ADHD differ per child. By and large, ADHD can be subdivided into three types:
- The inattentive type. This type is also called ADD because characteristics like impulsiveness and hyperactivity do not apply.
- The hyperactive type. This type is primarily hyperactive and impulsive.
- The inattentive and hyperactive type. In this combined type, attention problems, concentration problems as well as hyperactivity play an important part.
Adults with ADHD particularly have concentration, planning and organisation problems. Hyperactivity can occur to a much lesser extent in adults or it can manifest itself in other ways, such as an overactive mind, excessive exercise, poor sleep and so on.
ADHD in children can be recognised by the following characteristics:
- Difficulty sitting still
- Easily distracted
- Difficulty awaiting their turn
- Running from one activity to another and inability to play quietly
- Excessive talking
- Not listening to what others are saying and interrupting others
- Often rushing into dangerous situations
- Difficulty following through on instructions
- Responding differently to punishment and reward than other children
- Habitually losing things
- Having trouble to keep focusing their attention on something
- Difficulty keeping themselves under control
Adults with ADHD often have a lower performance and education level than one would expect judging by their intelligence.
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